Characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms for a forward genetics approach using genetic crosses in C57BL/6 and BALB/c substrains of mice

Ikuo Miura, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Shumpei P. Yasuda, Akiko Shinogi, Daiki Usuda, Vivek Kumar, Joseph S. Takahashi, Masaru Tamura, Hiroshi Masuya, Shigeharu Wakana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Forward genetics is a powerful approach based on chromosomal mapping of phenotypes and has successfully led to the discovery of many mouse mutations in genes responsible for various phenotypes. Although crossing between genetically remote strains can produce F2 and backcross mice for chromosomal mapping, the phenotypes are often affected by background effects from the partner strains in genetic crosses. Genetic crosses between substrains might be useful in genetic mapping to avoid genetic background effects. In this study, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) available for genetic mapping using substrains of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, 114 SNP markers were developed and assigned to locations on all chromosomes for full utilization for genetic mapping using genetic crosses between the C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N substrains. Moreover, genetic differences were identified in the 114 SNP markers among the seven C57BL/6 substrains from five production breeders. In addition, 106 SNPs were detected on all chromosomes of BALB/cAJcl and BALB/ cByJJcl substrains. These SNPs could be used for genotyping in BALB/cJ, BALB/cAJcl, BALB/cAnNCrlCrlj, and BALB/cCrSlc mice, and they are particularly useful for genetic mapping using crosses between BALB/cByJJcl and other BALB/c substrains. The SNPs characterized in this study can be utilized for genetic mapping to identify the causative mutations of the phenotypes induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis and the SNPs responsible for phenotypic differences between the substrains of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)240-251
Number of pages12
JournalExperimental Animals
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022


  • BALB/c
  • C57BL/6
  • genotyping
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • substrain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • veterinary(all)


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