CEST and PARACEST Agents for Molecular Imaging

Osasere M. Evbuomwan, Enzo Terreno, Silvio Aime, A. Dean Sherry

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

8 Scopus citations


In this chapter, small-molecule chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents are divided into classifications of diamagnetic (DIACEST) and paramagnetic (PARACEST) agents. Paramagnetic CEST agents represent class of chemical exchange systems that offer some potential advantages and disadvantages over DIACEST agents. Although PARACEST agents show considerable promise as responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents in vitro, translation of these sensors to in vivo measurements has so far been limited, especially for those PARACEST systems that operate through a water exchange mechanism. LipoCEST agents display exceptional sensitivity in the picomolar concentration range without the need for high saturation powers. Although the poor sensitivity of small-molecule CEST agents may still present a problem for molecular imaging applications, the design of supramolecular and nanosized systems with much lower detection limits could potentially resolve this issue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Chemistry of Molecular Imaging
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9781118854754
ISBN (Print)9781118093276
StatePublished - Dec 22 2014


  • Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents
  • Diamagnetic CEST (DIACEST) agents
  • LipoCEST agents
  • Molecular Imaging
  • Molecular imaging applications
  • Paramagnetic (PARACEST) agents
  • Supramolecular CEST agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Medicine(all)
  • Chemistry(all)


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