Calmodulin-driven nuclear entry: Trigger for sex determination and terminal differentiation

John A. Hanover, Dona C. Love, William A. Prinz

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

45 Scopus citations


We originally proposed that Ca2+-calmodulin mediates a novel nuclear entry pathway distinct from the canonic Ran-dependent pathway (Sweitzer, T. D., and Hanover, J. A. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 14574-14579). Although seemingly redundant, Ca2+-calmodulin-driven nuclear entry is now known to facilitate nuclear delivery of architectural transcription factors to chromatin. Intriguingly, defects in calmodulin-driven nuclear import of the transcription factors SRY and SOX9 in Sertoli cells lead to human sex reversal diseases with altered male gonad development. Calmodulin-triggered nuclear entry is an evolutionarily ancient feature of eukaryotes observed from yeast to man. Ca2+-calmodulin-triggered nuclear entry of key architectural transcription factors is a potentially key epigenetic regulator of terminal differentiation in response to cell signaling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12593-12597
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number19
StatePublished - May 8 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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