B0 shimming for in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Experts' consensus recommendations

Christoph Juchem, Cristina Cudalbu, Robin A. de Graaf, Rolf Gruetter, Anke Henning, Hoby P. Hetherington, Vincent O. Boer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) allow the chemical analysis of physiological processes in vivo and provide powerful tools in the life sciences and for clinical diagnostics. Excellent homogeneity of the static B0 magnetic field over the object of interest is essential for achieving high-quality spectral results and quantitative metabolic measurements. The experimental minimization of B0 variation is performed in a process called B0 shimming. In this article, we summarize the concepts of B0 field shimming using spherical harmonic shimming techniques, specific strategies for B0 homogenization and crucial factors to consider for implementation and use in both brain and body. In addition, experts' recommendations are provided for minimum requirements for B0 shim hardware and evaluation criteria for the primary outcome of adequate B0 shimming for MRS and MRSI, such as the water spectroscopic linewidth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere4350
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • B magnetic field
  • homogenization
  • shimming
  • spherical harmonic functions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


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