Binding energies of water to lithiated valine: Formation of solution-phase structure in vacuo

Andrew S. Lemoff, Evan R. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Dissociation kinetics for loss of a water molecule from hydrated ions of lithiated valine, alanine ethyl ester and betaine are determined using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation at temperatures between -60 and 110°C. From master equation modeling of these data, values of the threshold dissociation energy are obtained for clusters containing one through three water molecules. By comparing the values for valine with its two isomers, one a model for the nonzwitterion structure, the other a model for the zwitterion structure, information about the structure of valine in these hydrated clusters is inferred. Structures, relative energies, and water binding energies for these ions are also calculated at the B3LYP/6-31++G* level of theory. With one water molecule, both experiment and theory indicate that valine is not a zwitterion and that the lithium ion coordinates with the amino nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen (NO coordinated) and the water molecule interacts directly with the lithium ion. With two water molecules, the zwitterion and nonzwitterion structures are nearly isoenergetic, but the experiment clearly indicates a NO-coordinated nonzwitterion structure. With three water molecules, both the experimental data and theory indicate that the lithium ion binds to the carboxylate group of valine, i.e., valine is zwitterionic with three water molecules. The agreement between the experimentally determined and calculated binding energies is good for all the clusters, with deviations of ≤ 0.12 eV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1014-1024
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Spectroscopy


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