Base and Prime Editing in the Retina—From Preclinical Research toward Human Clinical Trials

Tiffany Yee, Katherine J. Wert

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that are one of the leading causes of vision loss in young and aged individuals. IRDs are mainly caused by a loss of the post-mitotic photoreceptor neurons of the retina, or by the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium. Unfortunately, once these cells are damaged, it is irreversible and leads to permanent vision impairment. Thought to be previously incurable, gene therapy has been rapidly evolving to be a potential treatment to prevent further degeneration of the retina and preserve visual function. The development of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) base and prime editors have increased the capabilities of the genome editing toolbox in recent years. Both base and prime editors evade the creation of double-stranded breaks in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the requirement of donor template of DNA for repair, which make them advantageous methods in developing clinical therapies. In addition, establishing a permanent edit within the genome could be better suited for patients with progressive degeneration. In this review, we will summarize published uses of successful base and prime editing in treating IRDs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12375
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • AAV
  • gene editing
  • gene therapy
  • photoreceptor degeneration
  • retina
  • retinal degeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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