Association of smoking and other risk factors with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy severity and corneal thickness

Xiaolin Zhang, Robert P. Igo, Jeremy Fondran, V. Vinod Mootha, Matt Oliva, Kristin Hammersmith, Alan Sugar, Jonathan H. Lass, Sudha K. Iyengar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Purpose. We investigated effects of smoking and other risk factors on the development of advanced Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and on central corneal thickness (CCT). Methods. Eyes from Caucasian probands, affected and unaffected family members, and unrelated controls matched for age from the FECD Genetics Multi-Center Study (n = 2044 subjects) were examined. Univariate and multivariate models, adjusted for family correlations, were used to determine the effect of smoking, sex, diabetes, and age on FECD case/control status and CCT. Results. In a multivariate model, sex and smoking were associated significantly with advanced FECD (grades 4-6) development (P = 0.016 and P = 0.047, respectively). Female sex increased odds by 34%. Smoking increased odds by 30%. In a multivariate model, diabetes was associated with an increase of 9.1 μm in average CCT (P = 0.021). Female sex was associated significantly with a decrease in average CCT by 6.9 μm (P = 0.015). Smoking had no significant effect on CCT in any model. As shown previously, advanced FECD was associated with large increases in CCT (31.4-94.2 μm). Conclusions. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of advanced FECD and self-reported diabetes was associated with increased CCT. Further study of the impact of smoking and diabetes on FECD development and changes in corneal thickness is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5829-5835
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2013


  • Corneal endothelial cells
  • FECD
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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