Association of Frailty With Treatment Selection and Long-Term Outcomes Among Patients With Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia

Neel M. Butala, Aishwarya Raja, Jiaman Xu, Jordan B. Strom, Marc Schermerhorn, Joshua A. Beckman, Mehdi H. Shishehbor, Changyu Shen, Robert W. Yeh, Eric A. Secemsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is often unclear. Frailty has emerged as an important factor that can identify patients at greater risk of poor outcomes and guide treatment selection, but few studies have explored its utility among the CLTI population. We examine the association of a health record-based frailty measure with treatment choice and long-term outcomes among patients hospitalized with CLTI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included patients aged >65 years hospitalized with CLTI in the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review data set between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2015. The primary exposure was frailty, defined by the Claims-based Frailty Indicator. Baseline frailty status and revascularization choice were examined using logistic regression. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the association between frailty and death or amputation, stratifying by treatment strategy. Of 85 060 patients, 35 484 (42%) were classified as frail. Frail patients had lower likelihood of revascularization (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75‒0.82). Among those revascularized, frailty was associated with lower likelihood of surgical versus endovascular treatment (adjusted OR, 0.76; CI, 0.72‒0.81). Frail patients experienced increased risk of amputation or death, regardless of revascularization status (revascularized: adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; CI, 1.30‒ 1.38; non-revascularized: adjusted HR, 1.22; CI, 1.17‒1.27). Among those revascularized, frailty was independently associated with amputation or death irrespective of revascularization strategy (surgical: adjusted HR, 1.36; CI, 1.31‒1.42; endovascular: aHR, 1.29; CI, 1.243‒1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with CLTI, frailty is an important independent predictor of revascularization strategy and longitudinal adverse outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere023138
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 21 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • chronic limb-threatening ischemia
  • frailty
  • outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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