Assessing the utility of urine testing in febrile infants 2 to 12 months of age with bronchiolitis

Marsha A. Elkhunovich, Vincent J. Wang, Phung Pham, Joyce C. Arpilleda, Joel M. Clingenpeel, Karim Mansour, Teresa Riech, Ken Yen, Deborah R. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: The utility of testing for urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile infants with bronchiolitis is indeterminate. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if the incidence of UTIs in febrile infants 2 to 12 months of age with bronchiolitis is higher than the presumed incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and determine risk factors associated with UTIs in this population. Methods: This prospective multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in the emergency departments of 6 children's hospitals between November 2011 and June 2015. We obtained a convenience sample of febrile infants with bronchiolitis 2 to 12 months of age who were tested for UTI. Patient characteristics analyzed included age, maximum temperature, duration of fever, ethnicity, sex, and circumcision status. Results: A total of 442 patients (including 86 froma previously published pilot study) were enrolled. Mean age was 5.5 months, 65.2% were Latino, 50.9% were male, and 27.6% of male infants were circumcised. Urinary tract infections were found in 33 patients (7.69%, binomial; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.19%-10.33%). Urinary tract infections were not related to age, height of temperature, duration of fever, or ethnicity. Uncircumcised males were significantly more likely to have UTIs than circumcised males (7.64% vs 0%, P = 0.03). Odds ratios (ORs) were lower for circumcised males but not uncircumcised males when compared with females (OR, 0.12; CI, 0.0-0.71; P = 0.01 vs OR, 0.77; CI, 0.33-1.74; P = 0.64). Conclusions: Febrile infants 2 to 12 months of age with bronchiolitis have a clinically significant incidence of UTI, suggesting that UTI evaluation should be considered in these patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E1104-E1109
JournalPediatric emergency care
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021


  • Bronchiolitis
  • Fever
  • Urinary tract infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Emergency Medicine


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