Anesthetic management of children undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy: A retrospective review

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11 Scopus citations


Objective: To determine the best anesthetic technique for DISE based on a retrospective review of the current literature and to highlight research gaps that should be addressed in future studies. Methods: A comprehensive retrospective review of the literature on anesthetic regimens for pediatric DISE through March 2020 was performed. Specific medical subject heading (MesH) terms included: drug-induced sleep endoscopy and anesthesia, DISE, child, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep disordered breathing. Results: Twelve articles were included. One study was a retrospective comparative study while the remaining 11 were case series. Five studies described anesthetic technique for DISE pre-T&A, two post-T&A, and four both pre- and post-T&A. The heterogeneity of the studies did not allow for a meta-analysis. A total of 1110 children ages 2 months to 19 years were included. Sedation depth and anesthetic outcomes with DISE were infrequently described. Eleven studies used a sevoflurane inhalational induction and mostly transitioned to a total IV anesthetic for maintenance. Propofol was the most commonly used sole anesthetic. A total of three studies used a combination of remifentanil and propofol, one used dexmedetomidine alone, one used sevoflurane alone, and one compared different regimens. Dexmedetomidine and ketamine have the most favorable profile for pediatric DISE but are not universally used. DISE completion, as reported in two studies, was 93% and 100%. Conclusion: There are several anesthetic regimens for DISE that achieve good sedation and outcomes. The combination of ketamine and dexmedetomidine may be the ideal regimen. Limited data and lack of protocols/high-quality studies exist on anesthetic regimens for pediatric DISE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110440
JournalInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Anesthetic
  • Drug-induced sleep endoscopy
  • Pediatric
  • Sleep apnea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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