Advances in higher-order chromatin architecture: the move towards 4D genome

Namyoung Jung, Tae Kyung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


In eukaryotes, the genome is hierarchically packed inside the nucleus, which facilitates physical contact between cis-regulatory elements (CREs), such as enhancers and promoters. Accumulating evidence highlights the critical role of higher-order chromatin structure in precise regulation of spatiotemporal gene expression under diverse biological contexts including lineage commitment and cell activation by external stimulus. Genomics and imaging-based technologies, such as Hi-C and DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have revealed the key principles of genome folding, while newly developed tools focus on improvement in resolution, throughput and modality at single-cell and population levels, and challenge the knowledge obtained through conventional approaches. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of principles of higher-order chromosome conformation and technologies to investigate 4D chromatin interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-245
Number of pages13
JournalBMB Reports
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D genome
  • 4D genome
  • Chromatin architecture
  • Chromatin loop
  • Chromosome conformation
  • Genome folding
  • Hi-C
  • Higher-order chromatin structure
  • TAD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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