Purpose: To prevent chemotherapy-related side effects, synthetic glucocorticoids, for example, dexamethasone, are routinely administered to patients with ovarian cancer. However, preclinical data implicate glucocorticoids in suppressing chemotherapy-mediated apoptosis in epithelial tumors. The anti-apoptotic mechanisms underlying this increased survival have been shown to require up-regulation of prosurvival genes, including serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) and map kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1)/dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1). Despite abundant preclinical data, there are no correlative studies in patients. We therefore evaluated anti-apoptotic gene expression in tumor samples from patients randomized to dexamethasone or normal saline. Experimental Design: Eighteen patients were randomized before exploratory laparotomy for suspected ovarian cancer. Dexamethasone or normal saline was administered i.v. following anesthesia. Ovarian and omental tumor samples were collected intra-operatively before and after infusion. Samples were analyzed for histology and glucocorticoid receptor expression by immunohistochemistry. SGK1 and MKP1/DUSP1 mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Ten patients were evaluable. At 30 min postinfusion, tumor samples from five patients receiving dexamethasone revealed an average SGK1 mRNA induction of 6.1-fold (SEM, ±2.6) compared with only 1.5-fold (SEM, ±0.4) in tumor samples from five patients receiving normal saline (P = 0.028). Average MKP1/DUSP1 mRNA expression was increased by 8.2-fold (SEM, ±2.9) following dexamethasone versus 1.1-fold (SEM, ±0.4) following normal saline (P = 0.009). All samples expressed glucocorticoid receptor. Conclusion: Glucocorticoid administration to patients is associated with rapid up-regulation of SGK1 and MKP1 expression in ovarian tumors. This finding supports the hypothesis that pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoids may decrease chemotherapy effectiveness in ovarian cancer patientst hrough increased anti-apoptotic gene expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research