Adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) mutations cause recessive hearing impairment in humans and defects in hair cell function and hearing in zebrafish

Regie Lyn P. Santos-Cortez, Kwanghyuk Lee, Arnaud P. Giese, Muhammad Ansar, Muhammad Amin-Ud-Din, Kira Rehn, Xin Wang, Abdul Aziz, Ilene Chiu, Raja Hussain Ali, Joshua D. Smith, Jay Shendure, Michael Bamshad, Deborah A. Nickerson, Zubair M. Ahmed, Wasim Ahmad, Saima Riazuddin, Suzanne M. Leal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


CyclicAMP(cAMP) production, whichis important for mechanotransduction within the inner ear, is catalyzed by adenylate cyclases (AC). However, knowledge of the role of ACs in hearing is limited. Previously, a novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus DFNB44 wasmapped to chromosome 7p14.1-q11.22 in a consanguineous family from Pakistan. Through whole-exome sequencing of DNA samples from hearingimpaired family members, a nonsense mutation c.3112C >T (p.Arg1038*) within adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was identified. This stop-gained mutation segregated with hearing impairment within the family and was not identified in ethnically matched controls or within variant databases. This mutation is predicted to cause the loss of 82 amino acids from the carboxyl tail, including highly conserved residues within the catalytic domain, plus a calmodulin-stimulation defect, both of which are expected to decrease enzymatic efficiency. Individualswhoare homozygous for this mutation had symmetric, mild-to-moderate mixed hearing impairment. Zebrafishadcy1bmorphantshadnoFM1-43dyeuptakeandlacked startle response, indicating hair cell dysfunction and gross hearing impairment. In the mouse, Adcy1 expression was observed throughout inner ear development and maturation. ADCY1 was localized to the cytoplasm of supporting cells and hair cells of the cochlea and vestibule and also to cochlear hair cell nuclei and stereocilia. Ex vivo studies in COS-7 cells suggest that the carboxyl tail of ADCY1 is essential for localization to actin-based microvilli. These results demonstrate that ADCY1has an evolutionarily conserved role in hearing and thatcAMP signaling is important to hair cell function within the inner ear

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3289-3298
Number of pages10
JournalHuman molecular genetics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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