ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Females

Expert Panel on GYN and OB Imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Pelvic floor disorders including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary dysfunction, defecatory dysfunction, and complications after pelvic floor surgery are relatively common in the female population. Imaging tests are obtained when the initial clinical evaluation is thought to be incomplete or inconclusive or demonstrates findings that are discordant with patients' symptoms. An integrated imaging approach is optimal to evaluate the complex anatomy and dynamic functionality of the pelvic floor. Fluoroscopic cystocolpoproctography (CCP) and MR defecography are considered the initial imaging tests of choice for evaluation of POP. Fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography is considered the initial imaging test for patients with urinary dysfunction. Fluoroscopic CCP and MR defecography are considered the initial imaging test for patients with defecatory dysfunction, whereas ultrasound pelvis transrectal is a complementary test in patients requiring evaluation for anal sphincter defects. MRI pelvis without and with intravenous contrast, MRI pelvis with dynamic maneuvers, and MR defecography are considered the initial imaging tests in patients with suspected complications of prior pelvic floor surgical repair. Transperineal ultrasound is emerging as an important imaging tool, in particular for screening of pelvic floor dysfunction and for evaluation of midurethral slings, vaginal mesh, and complications related to prior pelvic floor surgical repair. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S137-S155
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • AUC
  • Defecatory dysfunction
  • Pelvic floor disorder
  • Pelvic mesh
  • Pelvic organ prolapse
  • Urethral sling
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Vaginal bulge
  • Voiding dysfunction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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