ACR appropriateness criteria imaging in the diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome

John M. Moriarty, Dennis F. Bandyk, Daniel F. Broderick, Rebecca S. Cornelius, Karin E. Dill, Christopher J. Francois, Marie D. Gerhard-Herman, Mark E. Ginsburg, Michael Hanley, Sanjeeva P. Kalva, Jeffrey P. Kanne, Loren H. Ketai, Bill S. Majdalany, James G. Ravenel, Christopher J. Roth, Anthony G. Saleh, Matthew P. Schenker, Tan Lucien H Mohammed, Frank J. Rybicki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Thoracic outlet syndrome is a clinical entity characterized by compression of the neurovascular bundle, and may be associated with additional findings such as venous thrombosis, arterial stenosis, or neurologic symptoms. The goal of imaging is to localize the site of compression, the compressing structure, and the compressed organ or vessel, while excluding common mimics. A literature review is provided of current indications for diagnostic imaging, with discussion of potential limitations and benefits of the respective modalities. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. In this document, we provided guidelines for use of various imaging modalities for assessment of thoracic outlet syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)438-443
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2015


  • Appropriateness criteria
  • Paget-Schroetter
  • thoracic outlet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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