ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Chronic Chest Pain-High Probability of Coronary Artery Disease: 2021 Update

Expert Panel on Cardiac Imaging:

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Management of patients with chronic chest pain in the setting of high probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) relies heavily on imaging for determining or excluding presence and severity of myocardial ischemia, hibernation, scarring, and/or the presence, site, and severity of obstructive coronary lesions, as well as course of management and long-term prognosis. In patients with no known ischemic heart disease, imaging is valuable in determining and documenting the presence, extent, and severity of obstructive coronary narrowing and presence of myocardial ischemia. In patients with known ischemic heart disease, imaging findings are important in determining the management of patients with chronic myocardial ischemia and can serve as a decision-making tool for medical therapy, angioplasty, stenting, or surgery. This document summarizes the recent growing body of evidence on various imaging tests and makes recommendations for imaging based on the available data and expert opinion. This document is focused on epicardial CAD and does not discuss the microvascular disease as the cause for CAD. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S1-S18
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • AUC
  • Cardiac MR
  • Cardiac nuclear imaging
  • Chronic chest pain
  • Coronary/cardiac CTA
  • Echocardiography
  • Ischemic heart disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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