Acculturation, depressive symptoms, estriol, progesterone, and preterm birth in Hispanic women

R. Jeanne Ruiz, C. Nathan Marti, Rita Pickler, Christina Murphey, Joel Wommack, Charles E L Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


We examined the effects of acculturation, depressive symptoms, progesterone, and estriol (E3) as predictors of preterm birth (PTB) in pregnant Hispanic women. This cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 470 Hispanic women between 22- and 24-week gestation from physician practices and community clinics. We used the CES-D to measure maternal depressive symptoms. We measured acculturation by English proficiency on the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale, residence index by years in the USA minus age, nativity, and generational status. Serum progesterone and E3 were analyzed by EIA. Ultrasound and medical records determined gestational age after delivery. In x analysis, there were a significantly greater percentage of women with higher depressive scores if they were born in the USA. In a structural equation model (SEM), acculturation (English proficiency, residence index, and generational status) predicted the estriol/progesterone ratio (E/P), and the interaction of depressive symptoms with the E/P ratio predicted PTB. Undiagnosed depressive symptoms during pregnancy may have biological consequences increasing the risk for PTB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-67
Number of pages11
JournalArchives of Women's Mental Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2012


  • Acculturation
  • Depression. Estriol
  • Preterm birth
  • Progesterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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