Accelerated MR spectroscopic imaging—a review of current and emerging techniques

Wolfgang Bogner, Ricardo Otazo, Anke Henning

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Over more than 30 years in vivo MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) has undergone an enormous evolution from theoretical concepts in the early 1980s to the robust imaging technique that it is today. The development of both fast and efficient sampling and reconstruction techniques has played a fundamental role in this process. State-of-the-art MRSI has grown from a slow purely phase-encoded acquisition technique to a method that today combines the benefits of different acceleration techniques. These include shortening of repetition times, spatial-spectral encoding, undersampling of k-space and time domain, and use of spatial-spectral prior knowledge in the reconstruction. In this way in vivo MRSI has considerably advanced in terms of spatial coverage, spatial resolution, acquisition speed, artifact suppression, number of detectable metabolites and quantification precision. Acceleration not only has been the enabling factor in high-resolution whole-brain 1H-MRSI, but today is also common in non-proton MRSI (31P, 2H and 13C) and applied in many different organs. In this process, MRSI techniques had to constantly adapt, but have also benefitted from the significant increase of magnetic field strength boosting the signal-to-noise ratio along with high gradient fidelity and high-density receive arrays. In combination with recent trends in image reconstruction and much improved computation power, these advances led to a number of novel developments with respect to MRSI acceleration. Today MRSI allows for non-invasive and non-ionizing mapping of the spatial distribution of various metabolites’ tissue concentrations in animals or humans, is applied for clinical diagnostics and has been established as an important tool for neuro-scientific and metabolism research. This review highlights the developments of the last five years and puts them into the context of earlier MRSI acceleration techniques. In addition to 1H-MRSI it also includes other relevant nuclei and is not limited to certain body regions or specific applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere4314
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • MR spectroscopic imaging
  • acceleration
  • acquisition
  • compressed sensing
  • parallel imaging
  • reconstruction
  • spatial-spectral encoding
  • undersampling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


Dive into the research topics of 'Accelerated MR spectroscopic imaging—a review of current and emerging techniques'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this