Academic outcome in long-term survivors of pediatric liver transplantation

Betsy D. Kennard, Sunita M. Stewart, Debra Phelan-McAuliffe, David A. Waller, Marie Bannister, Vicki Fioravani, Walter S. Andrews

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Fifty long-term (3-9 year) survivors of pediatric liver transplantation were assessed using IQ, achievement, and school history measures. Forty-seven of these children had been evaluated before transplantation on intellectual measures, with mean scores for the group found to be in the low average range. At follow-up evaluation, the scores remained in the low average range on all intellectual measures; performance on academic tests was also within the low average range. Thirteen children (26%) were classified as having learning problems based on discrepancies between intellectual and academic function, but only five of them (38%) had received special education services. Nine of the children (18%) had IQ scores less than 70. Academic outcome did not relate to diagnosis, time between diagnosis and transplantation, age at time of transplantation, or average levels of cyclosporin A. Careful assessment and appropriate special education services are indicated to optimize the educational outcome of children who survive liver transplantation. J Dev Behav Pediatr 20:17-23, 1999.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-23
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1999


  • Academic
  • Intellectual
  • Pediatric liver transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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