A technique for respiratory-gated radiotherapy treatment verification with an EPID in cine mode

Ross I. Berbeco, Toni Neicu, Eike Rietzel, George T Y Chen, Steve B. Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Respiratory gating based on external surrogates is performed in many clinics. We have developed a new technique for treatment verification using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in cine mode for gated 3D conformal therapy. Implanted radiopaque fiducial markers inside or near the target are required for this technique. The markers are contoured on the planning CT set, enabling us to create digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for each treatment beam. During the treatment, a sequence of EPID images can be acquired without disrupting the treatment. Implanted markers are visualized in the images and their positions in the beam's eye view are calculated off-line and compared to the reference position by matching the field apertures in corresponding EPID and DRR images. The precision of the patient set-up, the placement of the beam-gating window, as well as the residual tumour motion can be assessed for each treatment fraction. This technique has been demonstrated with a case study patient, who had three markers implanted in his liver. For this patient, the intra-fractional variation of all marker positions in the gating window had a 95% range of 4.8 mm in the SI direction (the primary axis of motion). This was about the same (5 mm) as the residual motion considered in the planning process. The inter-fractional variation of the daily mean positions of the markers, which indicates the uncertainty in the set-up procedure, was within +8.3 mm/-4.5 mm (95% range) in the SI direction for this case.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3669-3679
Number of pages11
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 21 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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