Background Gastrostomy tubes are inserted via multiple techniques to provide a route for enteral feeding in the pediatric population. This review compares the rate of major complications and resource utilization associated with the various insertion techniques. Methods Major electronic databases were queried for comparative studies of two or more insertion techniques, including open, laparoscopic, percutaneous endoscopic, or fluoroscopic guided. Major complications were defined as reoperation within 1 year or death. Screening of eligible studies, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality were conducted independently by two reviewers. Forest and funnel plots were generated for outcomes using Revman 5.1, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Results Twenty-two studies with a total of 5438 patients met inclusion criteria. No differences in major complications were noted in studies comparing open versus laparoscopic approaches or open versus PEG. Studies comparing laparoscopic gastrostomy and PEG revealed a significantly increased risk in major complications with PEG (n = 10 studies, OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.17-0.51, p < 0.0001). The number needed to treat to reduce one major complication by abandoning PEG is 45. Conclusions PEG is associated with an increased risk of major complications when compared to the laparoscopic approach. Advantages in operative time appear outweighed by the increased safety profile of laparoscopic gastrostomy insertion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health