Our purpose was to determine the role of protein kinases in the mediation of the stimulatory effects of lead on catecholamine secretion. Pheochromocytoma cells were incubated for 90 minutes with W-7 (calmodulin antagonist), calphostin C (protein kinase C inhibitor), Sp-cAMPS (cAMP agonist), Rp-cAMPS (cAMP antagonist), forskolin (activator of adenylyl cyclase), or lead nitrate. Catecholamines were measured by liquid chromatography. Lead had a stimulatory effect on catecholamine secretion, whereas W-7 was inhibitory. In the presence of both lead and W-7, the response was markedly decreased compared to that seen with lead alone. Calphostin C suppressed the secretion of catecholamines; however, in the presence of lead and calphostin C, the secretion was similar to that seen with lead alone. Compared to control, Sp-cAMPS was stimulatory. Co-incubation of Sp-cAMPS and lead had a slight synergistic effect. Rp-cAMPS decreased catecholamine secretion, but co-incubation of Rp-cAMPS and lead resulted in a slight reduction compared to lead alone. Forskolin markedly increased the secretion of catecholamines, and co-incubation of lead and forskolin resulted in a synergistic increase. In the absence of calcium, lead had no effect. We conclude that lead stimulates catecholamine secretion by acting through the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II system and not through the protein kinase C or protein kinase A system, and requires the presence of calcium for its action.
- Catecholamine secretion
- Pheochromocytoma cells
- Protein kinases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)