A Comprehensive Guyton Model Analysis of Physiologic Responses to Preadapting the Blood Volume as a Countermeasure to Fluid Shifts

Karl E. Simanonok, R. Srini Srinivasan, Emily E. Myrick, Andra L. Blomkalns, John B. Charles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The Guyton model of fluid, electrolyte, and circulatory regulation is an extensive mathematical model capable of simulating a variety of experimental conditions. It has been modified for use at NASA to simulate head‐down tilt, a frequently used analog of weightlessness. Weightlessness causes a headword shift of body fluids that is believed to expand central blood volume, triggering a series of physiologic responses resulting in large losses of body fluids. We used the modified Guyton model to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume before weightless exposure could counteract the central volume expansion caused by fluid shifts, and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses that result in body fluid losses. Simulation results show that circulatory preadaptation, by a procedure resembling blood donation immediately before head‐down bedrest, is effective in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After 10 hours of head‐down tilt, preadaptation also produces higher blood volume, extracellular volume, and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest, compared with non‐preadapted control. These results indicate that circulatory preadaptation before current Space Shuttle missions may be beneficial for the maintenance of reentry and postflight orthostatic tolerance in astronauts. This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the simulation results pertaining to changes in relevant physiologic variables produced by blood volume reduction before a prolonged head‐down tilt. The objectives were to study and develop the countermeasure theoretically, to aid in planning experimental studies of the countermeasure, and to identify potentially disadvantageous physiologic responses that may be caused by the countermeasure. 1994 American College of Clinical Pharmacology

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)440-453
Number of pages14
JournalThe Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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